GASEOUS HYDROCARBONS

GASEOUS HYDROCARBONS:

RAW GAS:

 

NATURAL GAS IN ITS NATURAL STATE, EXISTING IN A RESERVOIR OR AS PRODUCED FROM THE RESERVOIR AND PRIOR TO PROCESSING.

NATURAL GAS AT THE WELLHEAD USUALLY CONSISTS OF METHANE WITH DECREASING AMOUNTS OF HEAVIER HYDROCARBONS.

RAW GAS MAY CONTAIN SUCH NON-HYDROCARBON GASES AS CARBON DIOXIDE, HYDROGEN SULPHIDE, NITROGEN, HYDROGEN AND HELIUM.

MARKETABLE GAS:

 

RAW GAS FROM WHICH NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS AND NON-HYDROCARBON GASES HAVE BEEN REMOVED OR PARTIALLY REMOVED BY PROCESSING.

MARKETABLE GAS IS ALSO KNOWN AS “PIPELINE QUALITY GAS” OR “SALE GAS”, AND IS COMPOSED PRIMARILY OF METHANE.

 

 NON-ASSOCIATED GAS :

 

NATURAL GAS IN A FREE STATE IN A RESERVOIR, BUT NOT FOUND IN ASSOCIATION WITH CRUDE OIL UNDER INITIAL RESERVOIR CONDITIONS.

DRY GAS

 

NATURAL  GAS  COMPOSED  PREDOMINANTLY  OF

METHANE (C1) AND ETHANE (C2).

 

 

WET GAS

 

NATURAL GAS CONTAINING PROPANE (C3) AND BUTANE (C4),

SOMETIMES IN AMOUNT AS HIGH AS 50% OR MORE.

HOW OIL & GAS MEASURED?

THE NUMBER 42 WAS BORROWED FROM ENGLAND, WHERE IN 1482 UNDER KING EDWARD IV, ESTABLISHED 42 GALLONS AS THE STANDARD SIZE BARREL FOR HERRING.

AT THAT TIME, HERRING FISHING WAS THE BIGGEST BUSINESS IN THE NORTH SEA.

BY 1866, SEVEN YEARS AFTER COL. DRAKE DRILLED HIS WELL, PENNSYLVANIA PRODUCERS CONFIRMED THE 42-GALLON BARREL AS THEIR STANDARD.

STILL USED AS THE STANDARD MEASUREMENT , IN THE BIGGEST BUSINESS IN THE NORTH SEA – WHICH TODAY OF COURSE IS NOT HERRING, BUT OIL.

EACH CRUDE OIL IS GIVEN AN API DEGREE RATING IN  RELATION TO ITS SPECIFIC GRAVITY COMPARED TO THAT OF WATER.

 

ON THE API SCALE, WATER IS GIVEN

A 10 DEGREE API RATING.

 

THE HIGHER THE DEGREE, THE LIGHTER IS THE CRUDE OIL.

GENERALLY, THE LIGHTER THE CRUDE, THE HIGHER IS ITS PRICE.

 

ABOVE 40 DEGREE API        VERY LIGHT

30 TO 40                      LIGHT

22 TO 30                    MEDIUM

BELOW 22                    HEAVY

 

BASED ON SULPHUR CONTENT

LOW SULPHUR CONTENT      SWEET

HIGH SULPHUR CONTENT     SOUR

PETROLEUM SECTOR CATEGORIZATION:

UP-STREAM

FINDING &PRODUCING PETROLEUM FROM THE GROUND

MID-STREAM:

IMPORTATION, TRANSPORTATION, TRANSMISSION, REFINING AND STORAGE OF OIL AND GAS PRODUCTS.

DOWN-STREAM:

DISTRIBUTION, SALE OF NATURAL GAS BY PIPELINES AND MARKETING OF OIL PRODUCTS.

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